The Richest Person in Saudi Arabia

By Abdulmajeed Alfrayan, Saudi Arabia

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Sulaiman AL-Rajhi is the richest person in Saudi Arabia.   When he was 16 he started selling the water in the street. He was working at the same time in a restaurant to earn the money for his family. When he earned some extra money he went to trade  in fruits and other things until he reached what he is now, the richest man in Saudi Arabia.

 

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Sulaiman AL-Rajhi has the largest bank in the Middle East. He has more than 50 thousand employees.

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Sulaiman Al-Rajhi was born in Al Bukairiyah, located in Al Qassim province in Saudi Arabia, and grew up in the Nejd desert with his brother, Saleh. Sulaiman Abdulaziz Al Rajhi holds the largest individual stake in his family’s Al Rajhi Bank.

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Sulaiman AL-Rajhi invested more than his half money to benefit kids and the poor people.

Get to know the Dutch

Anouk Slijkerman, the Netherlands.

Get to know the Dutch

Cheese, tulips and riding bicycles. This is what most people think of when they think about The Netherlands, but there is so much more to know about this small country with almost 17 million inhabitants. It’s a very successful country with a lot of history. The Netherlands has a lot of traditions most people never heard of and food that you can’t buy in any other country. Such as drop, stroopwafels and poffertjes.

Netherlands or Holland?
To begin with, I would like to tell the difference between the Netherlands and Holland. Most people are very confused by this. Sometimes when I say, I’m from the Netherlands people don’t immediately know what that is, but when I say Holland, almost everyone knows about the small country. So to explain this difference, we have to look at some history. The netherlands as we know nowadays came into existence after napoleon in 1830. The kingdom also included Belgium and Luxemburg. Later, Belgium and Luxemburg became independent countries. Nowadays, the Netherlands has 12 provinces. Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe, Overijssel, Flevoland, Gelderland, Utrecht, North-Holland, South-Holland, Zealand, North Brabant and Limburg. hollandSo, Holland is basically North-Holland and South-Holland combined. Holland was famous during the Dutch golden age, the 17th century, because of their many ships who tried to establish the trading routes. The Netherlands didn’t exist back then, so the sailors referred to their city state, South-Holland and North-Holland. So, Holland refer to the Netherlands as a synonym, but this is not true.  

Sinterklaas
Sinterklaas is a Dutch tradition for small children. Not every citizen likes this tradition, some people consider it as racist tradition because of ‘Zwarte Piet’.

The history of Sinterklaas starts in Turkey. Sint-Nicolaas (original name of Sinterklaas) was the bishop of Myra, a town in Turkey. Because of all the good deeds Nicolaas did, such as giving money to the poor, people professed him as a Saint. A lot of legends started to follow about this man and all his good deeds. So Sinterklaas is originally a Catholic tradition. Sinterklaas hassinterklaas helpers called Zwarte Piet. People aren’t sure where Zwarte Piet originally came from but there is a suggestion. People say that Sinterklaas  helped them from escaping slavery, and as an reward they kept helping Sinterklaas. Nowadays, Sinterklaas gives children presents on December 5th. Every year, he arrives in a big boat with his helpers in Holland. Mostly on November 11th. Children put their shoe under the fire place, and every once a week Zwarte Piet comes through the chimnpepernoteney to deliver a present in the shoe of the kid. Some people suggest that this is why Zwarte Piet is black. During Sinterklaas we eat pepernoten. Pepernoten stand for the money that Sinterklaas gave to the poor. They are small cookies made with dutch cookie species and a lot of sugar.

Koningsdag
King Day, or Koningsdag how the Dutch call it. This is a day where we celebrate the birthday of the King. Kingsday originally started as ‘prinsessendag’, princess day, which was the celebration of the birthday of princess Wilhelmina. This was on August 31th 1890. 5 Years later, when her daughter Juliana became queen, princess day became Queens Day and was hold on April 30th, the birthday of queen Juliana. Queen Juliana her daughter, who became queen in 1980 decided to keep Queensday on Juliana her birthday in honor to her mother. When King Willem-Alexander, the current king and son of Beatrix became king in 2013, he decided to change it to Kingsday and moved it to april 27th, his birthday.koningsdag.jpg

On Kingsday, most schools, stores and businesses are closed in The Netherlands, so everyone can celebrate the birthday of the king. In the morning, streets are covered with orange decoration and there’s a flea market on every street where people can sell their used stuff. People also play Dutch traditional games. One of the game is Koekhappen, Koekhappen is a game where people have to catch cake dangling from a string in their mouths. In the afternoon, there are big parties in every city and there are a lot of festival with famous DJ’s such as Martin Garrix and Armin van Buuren.

 

Dutch food
So this were 2 of the Dutch Holidays. Sinterklaas and Koningsdag. But what about the food? There are a lot of typical Dutch dishes. During winter the Dutch love to eat hot, home prepared meals for dinner. One of them is ‘hutspot’ (which can be roughly translated as “shaken pot”). The main ingredients are carrots, boiled and mashed potatoes and onions.  All the ingredients are mashed together and it’s mostly served with ‘rookworst’. Rookworst is a smoked sausage.hutspot

 

There are also Dutch sweets and cookies. Stroopwafel is the most popular kind of cookie in the county. Stroopwafel are two waffles glued together with caramel. The waffles get hard but the caramel stays soft. You can buy different types of them. You can buy fresh made ones on the market, but you can also buy them in the supermarket. You can even buy them at Publix, but these are way more expensive than the ones you can buy in the Dutch supermarket.stroopwafel

So I hope you learned a lot moreabout this small country. Are you planning on visiting this country? Come during koningsdag or Sinterklaas. And are you hungry? Go to a restaurant and ask for Hutspot with Rookworst. Maybe you can explain to a Dutch local what the difference is between Holland and the Netherlands. Because there are even people in the country self, who don’t know the difference. The next time you hear a person say, I’m from the Holland. You can ask them, North or South Holland. If they say an other part. Correct them and say no, you mean the Netherlands.

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

In 1894 Nicholas II became Tsar of the Russian empire that contained more than 120 million people. It was a country in which workers and peasants lived in poverty and under bad conditions while Russia’s elite lived a luxurious life. There was a long history of conflicts in Russia against the injustices of the system and in 1905, the first uprising forced
the Tsar to allow the creation of a state duma or national assembly , but its power was limited.

Tsar Nicholas II and his family

In 1914 this divided empire entered a fresh crisis of World War One. World War One was a disaster for Russia. At the front, the country suffered many devastating defeats, meanwhile, at home, there

Russian soldies in a trench

were food shortages and an economic decline. The people viewed the Tsar as responsible for standing in the way of government reform.

 

On February 23 in 1917, thousands of women went to the streets of the Russian capital, which was Petrograd, for International Women’s Day and to protest bread shortages. The  next day, workers and students joined the street protest with placards illustrating “Down with the Tsar!” Troops who should have tried to put down the disorder

February 1917: Protests in Petrograd

joined the protesters instead. As a result, supporters of the Tsar were arrested, police stations were attacked, symbols of the Tsar’s power destroyed. The government had lost control of the capital.
The Tsar abdicated on 2nd March hoping to bring back order and to protect the cou
ntry from a military defeat. The February Revolution was particularly bloodless to this point and hopes were high for the creation of a more democratic state.

 

Members of the State Duma, the national assembly, had formed a provisional government under the pretext to bridge the time until a Constituent Assembly was elected, to give Russia a new constitution. The reality was different: the Provisional Government had internal conflicts from groups with different political radicalizations. Parts of the Provisional Government did not believe that Russia was ready for socialism. Additionally, the Provisional Government had control over the troops and their organization and agreed to continue the World War One and fulfill the commitments that Russia had made for the allies. It was a bad decision because it strengthened one of the smaller parties called the Bolsheviks.
The Bolsheviks leader was Vladimir Lenin. He excoriated the “Imperialistic War” and also demanded Russia’s transformation, like the redistribution of land from rich landowners

Bolsheviks leader V. Lenin (center) and L. Trotsky (right)

to peasants and the transfer of power to the people’s councils. With an ongoing economic military and economic decline these ideas appealed to the people more and more. A military offensive in June resulted in 400,000 Russian casualties and a moral collapse of the army.
In July, soldier
s and sailors in Petrograd mutinied. They were joined in the streets by workers, with Bolshevik support. But troops loyal to the Provisional Government still supporting the war, opened fire on the protestors. After that police arrested several Bolshevik leaders, including Leon Trotsky, Lenin, with the help of Josef Stalin, fled to Finland.
The socialist, Alexander Kerensky, became Russia’s new Prime Minister and was seen as the remaining option to save Russia from anarchy. At the same time, General Kornilov blamed the internal chaos for the military defeats so he ordered his men to march on Petrograd in August, to “restore order.” The Bolsheviks played a leading role in the city’s defense against this attempted military coup. Their organizer, Leon Trotsky, was released from prison, and sent armed Bolshevik militias, called “Red Guards,” to defend strategic points. Strikes by railway workers, many of them Bolshevik supporters, prevented Kornilov from an efficient supply and his soldiers began to switch sides or stopped fighting at all. This event pushed the Bolsheviks to the role as saviors of the revolution and by the end of September; they had gained a majority in the city council.
In October, Lenin decided the time had come. He returned from Finland to Petrograd, and began preparing to gather power. On 25th October, the Bolshevik’s Red Guards and loyal

Red Guard unit consisting of factory workers

troops conquered key points around the capital, and that night they stormed the Provisional Government’s headquarters at the Winter Palace. The next day, at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Lenin announced the overthrow of the Prov
isional Government. The following months, the Bolsheviks consolidated their authority while fighting a civil war against counter-revolutionary forces, which had foreign support. Some of them even hoped to put Tsar Nicholas back on the throne.
Nicholas and his family had been held under guard outside Petrograd. In the summer 1917 the family was sent to Siberia under house arrest in the Governor’s Mansion. The following spring, the Bolsheviks had the family moved to Yekaterinburg. In July 1918,

Foreign counter-revolutionary troops  in Russia

as counter-revolutionary forces attacked the city, Bolshevik soldiers executed the whole family – the Tsar, his wife, their son, their four daughters and four servants.
Russia’s civil war was one of the 20th century’s most devastating events. An estimated 2 million soldiers lost their lives, while an additional epidemic and famine led to further 9 million dead civilians. By the end of 1921, the Bolsheviks had emerged victorious and under Lenin’s leadership they set a new socialist order. The Soviet Union, created in 1922, emerged as a world superpower following the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War Two, but it would always remain a single party state, where all opposition was suppressed. Those hopes for Russian democracy in early phases of the revolution were put beyond reach for decades by the Bolshevik October Revolution.

 
Jan Lubes, Germay