In the year 1095 after Christ, Pope Urban II called in the Council of Clermont at the beginning of the Crusades.
In the spring of 1096, the Crusaders broke up into four armies under the leadership of French princes.
The religion of Islam, founded by the Arab Mohammed in Mecca 630, became a threat to Byzantium. As the holy places of Christianity in Jerusalem were also in the hands of the Arabs, the Pope called for the First Crusade.
In the year 1099, the Crusaders succeed in conquering Jerusalem.
The siege lasted five weeks. During this time, the Crusaders set up an appalling massacre among the Islamic and Jewish populations.
The goal of the crusade had been reached and more than one million people had lost their lives in this war.
: 1096-1099 First Crusade
: (15.7.1099 Storming of Jerusalem
: 1147-1149 Second Crusade
: 1189-1192 Third Crusade
: 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade
: 1218-1229 Fifth crusade
: 1248-1254 Sixth crusade
: 1270 Seventh Crusade
The Seventh Crusade was also called the Children’s Crusade. Crusade undertaken by French and German children, in which they moved, from religious zeal, to the thousands to Genoa and Marseille, and perished miserably or were sold as slaves on the way.
The consequences of the Crusades:
The formation of Knights ‘ order
(Templar order, Order of St. John and Teutonic Order.
Ranking of the order of the Knights Templar:
Since there was a well-organized hierarchy among the Templars, it was possible for them to set up a powerful army.
There were a large number of well-trained knights in the main quarters who guarded the fortresses on the one hand and were on call for the fight on the other.
In addition to these knights, there were sergeants and squires who belonged to the Templars.
Grandmaster–he acted like a sovereign
• Seneschal-he was the second highest dignitary • Marshal-was responsible for the training of the Knights
• Komtur – responsible for the provinces and treasurers
• Schneider – provided the Knights with the necessary garments depending on the seasons
• Fighting Brothers Knights – were members of the aristocracy – their possessions: 3 horses, a squire and a tent
• Serving Brothers Sergeants – came from a non-aristocratic family and possessed 1 horse
• Under Marshal-subjected to the marshal-was treated similarly to a knight
• Banner Carrier – was sergeant and responsible for all squires
• Squire – Stood up to the knight in battle and took care of the equipment and the horse