by Miki Nakayama, Japan
by Sofia Gilioli, Italy & Samuele Savio, Italy
By Jeanne Gautreau, France
1901 to 1920: La Belle Epoque
In the early 1900s, women wore corsets or garter belts to achieve the coveted S-shape figure. The corsets were so tight that some women had health problems and fainted at the slightest emotion. Dresses and sleeves were very long so the women’s bodies were hidden. Hats, parasols, train dresses, fans, gigots sleeves, lace, pearls, ribbons are trendy.
After the First World War, as women had to work, comfort became a priority. The corset was banished and replaced by the bra; skirts and dresses rose to just below the knee; women’s pants and low-cut clothes appeared. Fashion turned to more modernity; the size is redefined; the hips are highlighted; the silhouette of women is sublimated and feminized.
Coco Channel created the little black dress in 1926. Rhinestones and sequins were added to the clothes. Slimness and tanned complexion are the new canons of beauty. The 20s are also marked by the Charleston style – the boyish cut and the cloche hat.
1930 : Arrival of the trousers for women
Formal elegance and pre-war classicism were the hallmarks of the 30s. During the day, women wore mid-calf skirts; at night, their dresses played with clean lines, emphasizing the silhouette. Elsa Schiaparelli’s jersey jacket, Everlast’s elastic belt and more generally nylons made their appearance. The only playfulness was limited to the multicolored stripes on the shocking pink top of Schiaparelli. Some highlights appeared, such as shorts for women, the sculptural hat and worn sideways on wavy hair. The scarf is a favorite of the 30s.
In 1940, mass fashion developed and gave access to ready-to-wear clothing to the greater numbers. The style was redefined and sober. The suit became an essential piece, as did the plunging neckline in the back and high-waisted skirts. The cut of the clothes were even more fluid but preserved a marked silhouette. The Second World War ended the textile industry. Nevertheless, it did not prevent women from reinventing their own fashion with scraps of fabric that they made themselves.
1950 : The Emancipation of women fashion
The 50s marked the beginning of the post-war area. Women were looking for elegance, chic and femininity. To do this, French fashion was inspired by the United States in the middle of the retro chic period, with the arrival of the pinup, the rock-n-roll look, country music and the Grease phenomenon. This period is characterized by the pencil skirt, the dress with cinched waist, the clothes with polka dots, the short cardigans, the mini shorts, the bustier tops…
Channel marked the decade with its tight little suit in 1954 and the House of Dior with its Corolle dress – skirt 30 cm of the ground – marked waist, chest forwards and rounded shoulders. Dior dressed the high society with its style “New Look”. Marylin Monroe was the emblem of the time with her glamorous style, long gloves, Corolle dress or pencil skirt. Thanks to technical progress, fashion was trying new materials : polyamide and acrylic. This will allow the creation of ready-to-wear lines that will gradually integrate the Luxury Houses, until now dedicated to haute-couture.
1960: A symbolic fashion – the miniskirt and the metal dress
The first 5 years of the 60s decade followed the fashion of the 50s. From 1965 onwards, all working women were looking for comfort. Thus, it is no longer notable to be dressed to the nines or to be perfect.
Fashion was influenced by the “pop” and “yéyé” movements. No more going to the tailor, women were used to buying their clothes in ready-to-wear stores. The styles “yéyé”, “black jackets”, “mods” or “rockers” imposed themselves as symbols of a counter-culture.
Following May 1968, no more hiding behind skirts too long with dull colors. Women began to show their legs, with the mini-skirt, worn with summer and winter boots. The pants became unisex, the jeans were in full expansion. They dared new cuts, new materials. It is also the fashion of colored tights, the trapeze dress and the monokini.
Brigitte Bardot is the icon of the 60s, symbol of women’s liberation and voluptuous shapes, encouraging to be sexy.
1970: The liberation of women
The 70s were a time of rejection with the hippie movement that wanted a liberated body. The philosophy: bootcut pants, colorful psychedelic t-shirts and bohemian style. After the mini skirt of the 60s, women opted for a skirt mid-thigh or ankle. They bet on patterns and stripes, oriental and floral prints. The materials change: silk fabrics, jeans, suede. The clothing style of the 70s honors the very pronounced colors (electric blue, fuchsia pink, yellow chick…) and glitter thanks to ABBA and disco music. The disco style by excellence: scarf, fringe long and fluid dresses with floral prints. During this time, the styles of women and men were mixed; men had long hair and woman had boyish haircuts, pants and blazers. The punk style was accompanied by blue jeans with holes under the kilt, a studded bracelet and big Dr. Marteens boots. At the end of the 70s, the popularity of women’s fashion exploded thanks to the creativity of Diane Von Furstenberg, who invented the wrap dress.
1980: colorful fashion
The 80s were colorful. We remember this trend for leggings, sportswear and boyfriend jeans. Flashdance style, with a short top and a loose sweater. Fluo also marked the decade, and neon colors gave a very sharp look. In the 80s, fashion changed the face of the woman by giving her perfect measurements. Fashion also started to be seen as a way to belong to a clan. The watchword of the 80s remained “money” and “show off”.
The New Wave, which represented all the rage and that influenced the rock and the gothic trends, black is a wardrobe staple. During this decade, the US sports style started the trend of comfortable clothes such as joggers, sneakers, lycra clothes, elastic fibers and stretchy clothes.
The 90s marked a real turning point with anti-fashion influences. No more colorful styles, the brands turned to sweatshirt, jeans, bombers and a printed t-shirt. The clothing style was hip-hop inspired with the baggy and the low waist, minimalist and sensual lines. The fashion was accessorized with the fanny pack, the cap or the screaming scrunchies. We adopted the Californian style, of the pop icons, with short tops and wide pants. Some products made a comeback, such as bell bottoms and overalls. The grunge style took root with the brand Nirvana, with ripped jeans, vintage sneakers and plaid shirts. It was the arrival of hybrid looks between formal and casual.
2000 to nowadays – from the American sporty look to modernity
Fashion in 2000 as watchwords of an assumed style. Indeed, fashion was created everywhere and with everything, each piece of the dressing was a new way to create a fashion style. The look with the belly button highlighted, the elephant legs pants, the asymmetrical tops which gave a star look to Britney Spears, Gwen Stefani, or J.Lo.
The 2000s are associated with the beginning of “brands” as an image; clothing is no longer the main thing; we gave more importance to brands. Another trend was created with the rejection of consumer fashion to excess.
To push consumption, brands were using stars because of their strong influence on clothing. Fashion became more and more international with globalization, which do not prevent some brands from keeping their signature identity.
By Takumi Osawa, From Japan
I’m going to recommend Japanese food and drink. There are many kinds of Japanese food. I chose the three dishes. You should try to eat and drink it, when you come to Japan.
Ramen is very popular in Japan. When you eat ramen in winter, it will make your body warm. Most Japanese people like ramen.
In Japan, there are so many ramen restaurants so that it shouldn’t be very hard to find a ramen you like. In other words, you can try so many types of ramen.
But I think it’s very hard to find a ramen which suits your taste, so I’m going to give you special information. I really recommend “miso-ramen.” “Miso-ramen” is the most popular of many kinds of ramen in Japan. Of course, “Miso-ramen” is my favorite ramen. If you can’t decide which kinds of ramen to eat, you should try to eat “miso- ramen.”
I know you’ve already known “sushi”. “Sushi” is also very popular food in Japan. I can say that Sushi is traditional Japanese food. Sushi has a history of over 1,300 years.
There are many sushi restaurants in all of the world so that you can try to eat sushi easily. I think many people have eaten sushi ever. But original Japanese sushi is different from sushi you’ve eaten it outside of Japan. I can’t explain how different its taste is. But If you try to eat sushi in Japan, you can recognize the difference between original Japanese sushi and sushi you’ve eaten ever.
I’m going to give you special information. I recommend drinking Japanese-sake with sushi. The combination between Japanese-sake and sushi is very good. If you are more than 20 years old, you should try it. But Japanese-sake is very strong alcohol, so be careful not to drink too much.
If you have a chance to come to Japan, you should try to eat sushi and enjoy original Japanese sushi.
Third, Japanese tea.
Japanese tea is a very healthy drink. It helps for your health. Japanese tea is called “ocha” by Japanese people. I want you to remember “ocha” and want to you use “ocha” when you visit Japan.
Japanese tea is loved by most of Japanese people. Japanese tea goes well with many Japanese food. I recommend drinking Japanese tea with sushi. The combination between Japanese sushi and Japanese tea is very good.
There are two types of Japanese tea. One is cold Japanese tea, another is hot Japanese tea. Both of them is very good teste. You should drink cold Japanese tea in hot season. It makes your body cooler. Also, you should drink hot Japanese tea in cold season. It makes your body warm.
You can get a Japanese tea easily at supermarket, convenience store or vending machine in Japan. You should get a Japanese tea when you visit Japan. Enjoy drinking Japanese tea.
November 16, 2020
A2 / B1 English Communication M / W
But what is special about PizzaRev? And why is it better than every other Italian restaurant?
It’s because the deliciously simple and satisfying concept, that you can choose everything for the pizza. You pick out your dough, sauce, cheese and toppings and the pizza crafters are working with you to make your own pizza right before your eyes. It’s like an adventure – A food adventure!
- You can choose your Crust: Roman thin or gluten-free dough, traditional or cauliflower.
- Sauce it up with savory organic marinara, creamy white Alfredo, spicy-sweet BBQ or olive oil. And for the crazy ones, they have the opportunity to make a mix of sauces.
- Now it’s time to put some toppings on your pizza. You can choose between more than 30 artisan cheeses and fresh ingredients. And the craziest thing is, that you can pick as many pizza toppings as you would like to, because PizzaRev doesn’t charge by the toppings.
- They put your pizza in a oven which is fired-up at 900-degrees. Your masterpiece will have a crispy perfection in less than 3 minutes.
And you only have to pay $8.99 for your own created pizza! Or you can have a half pizza and a slide salad for only $6. Isn’t that amazing? This is what we call the PizzaRev-olution!
But where can your get the pizza? PizzaRev has a lot of locations in the USA and South America. You can find them on a map on their website.
If you like pizza, you should definitely try it! I’m pretty sure that you will love it. Check out their website, click through the topics and allow yourself to be inspired!
Kenneth-Nolan Kross, from Germany,
LeBron James is one of the most famous basketball players in the world. He is 34 years old and born in Akron, Ohio. He has played for the Los Angeles Lakers since 2018. In the beginning of his career, he played for the Cleveland Cavaliers, from 2003 to 2010, winning in 2008 the scoring title and nominated into the All-NBA first Team twelve times. On November 14 of 2018, he scored 44 points in one match. This is the fifth highest scoring in the history of basketball. He also had one of the best averages of scoring in basketball. These are many facts, but what is the secret behind his big career?
His early life was not really easy. He and his family moved from apartment to apartment. A football coach gave James the option to play basketball when he was 9 years old. His parents realized that James didn’t want to be a normal player – he wanted to be better than the others. With an amateur team, James and his friends, enjoyed a local and national level. Then they went to a high school in Ohio. His first season was unbelievable; James had an averaged of 25.2 points per game.
Many scouts watched him because everyone knew he could be a star. James was named the “Ohio Mr. Basketball”. He and his team were the only high school team in Ohio that finished a season undefeated.
After a good college career, he joined the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2003. He was the best Rookie in this year. He played in Cleveland for 7 years, but, after failing to win a championship with Cleveland, he left them and joined the Miami Heats as a free agent. With Miami he won two NBA championships. Since 2018 he has played for the LA Lakers.
The secret behind his success are his rules. He always wanted to be a professional player, but he always had 10 rules. The first one is “Never give up”. For example, he started in his own town and had no target, but he always tried his best. His second rule is, “Don’t try to be perfect because you can’t be perfect, but training hard for your dream is important.” He said “Without pain you can’t get better”. “Maximize your potential which means to try your best. You play as a team, but you have to find your play style for yourself. Are you a leader or not?”
“If you have success then share your success.” This is his fifth rule. He helped other players to get better because he didn’t just think about himself. “Ignore the haters, do what you like.” Lebron James is today the leader of the Lakers, but he isn’t a normal leader. His teammates are inspired by him. One of his rules is, “find your leadership style. For example, are you a team player or are you playing for your success?” His personally favorite rule is, “Don’t think you are the best. Train to be the best, but don’t think you are the best if you finished a good training session. “
All in all Lebron is not only a basketball player, he is a big influencer, an idol, and a great person. He changed the game of basketball in the way the game is played. As a person, he is one of the best leaders for a team. He isn’t a player who is just the symbol of a club. He manages to bring along and improve his teammates.
Alberte Lynge, Denmark.
I love to travel. I have traveled quite a bit already and I want to travel even more. I know that a lot of people like to travel as well. When I travel, I often think of the question, why do we travel? What’s the reason for us to get out of the environment we’re used to and where we feel safe?
I found a whole bunch of answers to this question. Of course, it’s a question to which there is no right or wrong answer, but I found 5 reasons that I think are the best.
#1. We travel to learn.
Whether it’s learning a new language or learning about a country’s history, traveling allows us to learn so many different things. We get to learn about the diverse cultures and ways of living. We learn about how our lives are intertwined and how we can impact one another.
#2. To escape.
Traveling gives us a momentary break from our daily routines and everyday lives. It provides us with adventure and excitement. When we travel and experience a new space or environment, we’re intrigued by all the new and different things that surrounds us. We forget about our jobs, our classes, and all our other responsibilities.
#3. To discover.
This goes hand in hand with the previous point, but traveling allow us to discover, whether it’s an interesting location or a new favorite dish. We travel to not only see more of the world and the people in it, but to also discover more about ourselves in the process.
Through the challenges that we face and the experiences that we gain, we discover our strengths, our limitations, and our potential while traveling.
#4. To make new friends.
When you travel, you meet people of diverse backgrounds and experiences and every single one of them has the potential to play an important role in your life, whether that is a new best friend or your soul mate, who knows.
#5. To experience.
Last but not least. We travel to experience all that we can and all that the world has to offer. We can experience the local culture by eating delicacies and dishes that are unique to the country or a certain region.
We can experience what it’s like to communicate solely through gestures when we don’t know how to speak a language. We might even realize how life in a foreign country is not that much different from our own back home.
Experiences help bring meaning to our lives. They both shape and define us.
These were the reasons I found the best and most relatable. If you have a different answer to why we travel or a point of view then please write it in the comments.
Naomie Gauchat, Switzerland
I lived In San Francisco for almost 4 months so I had the time to discover a lot of things. San Francisco is home with a little bit of everything. Whether you’re a first time visitor or a long-time local, you can find a lot of different activities to do.
1. The Golden Gate Bridge
First of all you should go to the Golden Gate Bridge. Once called “the bridge that couldn’t be built,” today it is one of the seven wonders of the modern world. You can cross the bridge by walking, by biking, by bus or by car. I recommend this trip during the sunset; it is beautiful !
2. Fisherman’s Wharf
The second place where you must go is Fisherman’s Wharf. Fisherman’s is a neighbourhood and popular tourist attraction in SF. It roughly encompasses the northern waterfront area of San Francisco. It is there that you can find the different boats to go to Alcatraz and also the famous Pier 39 with the sea lions.
3. The Coit Tower
The Coit Tower is an inevitable thing to do. It is a 64 meters tower in the Telegraph Hill neighbourhood, offering panoramic views over the city and the bay. The tower, in the city’s Pioneer Park, was built between 1932 and 1933. It is a little bit expensive; 9$ to go up by elevator but it’s worth it!
Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay, 2 kilometres offshore from San Francisco. It is the second most popular tourist attraction in SF. The small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison, and a federal prison from 1934 until 1963. This last facility is why Alcatraz is famous nowadays. The departure is from Fisherman’s Wharf and you will arrive 30 minutes later on the Island. During this tour, you can get audio guides and discover the entire story of Alcatraz.
5. Castro District
In this neighbourhood, along the streets, you will find brightly colored rainbow banners fluttering from lamp posts. This place is the historic centre of the LGBT community reflects. It’s a lively neighbourhood. I recommend this district to go out with your friends, even if you are not part of this community. There are some different clubs and bars so you will have a good time there !