Steve Jobs

Jorge Ceron

My hero is Steve Jobs, he is born at February 24, 1955 in San Francisco, California. Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Schieble were your real parents but her mother gave him up for adoption because she wanted him to had a good life and enjoy his childhood then he was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs, he had two siblings, he was married with Laurene Powell, he had five children and he died with Cancer at October 5, 2011. Palo Alto,CA.

The first job was at Hewlett Packard a Hp inventors then he got a job at Atari, it’s a video game company. That is to say, he saved money to pay for a trip to India and he never returns to Atari. He started with his best friend Steve Wozniak of Apple Computers in 1976. This was the beginning of everything.

Steve Jobs has built what he believed into a reality. He was born into a very simple life, but left it being one of the most innovative leaders of all time. Time and time again, he was able to grow up with his team at the same time to bring forth most exciting products.

Steve Jobs is known as a creative genius and has developed various tools in personal computing, music and communication. He never gave up because you believe in and doing what you love every day.

SAVE THE OCEAN

-Misaki

-Bhoomi

Everyday, when we get something to eat, when we go to Starbucks and get one cup of coffee, or when we buy something and get stuff with plastic bags, after that we just throw plastic waste to trash can without thinking either where it is going to be or what if it is not going to be recycled or how it is going to affect the environment. In this article, we are going to write about how plastic waste is produced, how it is affecting the marine life and the consequences and solution.

Example: Vietnam pollute the great amount of the plastic waste into the ocean, which places the worlds 5 worst. Another Asian country also pollute the plastic into the ocean, for example China, Indonesia, Philippine, and Thailand. Vietnam pollute plastic into ocean and this number is between 28 and 73 million tons each year, which is about 6% of the world total plastic waste. This plastic waste amount is increasing ever year around 10 million tons each year. For example, nearly 250,000 tons of plastic waste is generated in the city called Ho Chi Minh each year, however, around 80% of them are recycled, or if the things get worse, it released into the sea or some other natural environment. As you can see on this picture, there are many plastic bags at the beach. One estimates shows that around 80% of plastic waste and plastic bags are released as a trash every day in Vietnam. Compared to 2010, Vietnam aimed to decrease 65% of non biodegradable plastic bags at the stores or shops by 2020 and also they try not to release non biodegradable plastic bags at all by 2026.

Marine life: when plastic waste is releases into the ocean, it badly affects marine life. Marine life for example, sea turtle mistakes plastic for food abs when they eat it, it damages their body, causes body disfunction and causes death. Plastic bags looks like jellyfish for them, so that they eat it without knowing it is not a food. Research was conducted by American and United Kingdom and Australian researchers. They found out that 102 sea turtles, which varies 7 types of kinds from Atlantic, Pacific, and Mediterranean, every single one of them had eaten plastic. Half of the sea turtles around the world had ingested plastic, scientists estimate.

「the beach」の画像検索結果
「ocean plastic」の画像検索結果

consequences: what is the consequenses? The consequenses are really bad, people dont really think about it because they dont see the ocean everyday.The fishes are dying, we are distroing our enviorment and we dont even know about that.we all spend our time at the beach to relax and have a fun time with family/friends, we bring food and drinks.bur what happends to the trash after? do they throw it away in a dustbin? No we dont because sometimes the plasticbags flys away with the wind and nobody would run after it.if we keep doing this there is gonna be nothing left of the ocean.no fishes no life in the ocean

Biking in the Netherlands

By Pepe Menken, from the Netherlands.

If you’ve ever been to the Netherlands, you probably know what the best transportation in the Netherlands is. The Bicycle! We love biking so much that we have more bicycles then people in the Netherlands. For some tourists, biking, especially in Amsterdam, is also one of the most dangerous ways of transportation. But you might wonder how this has become… Well that’s what I’m going to explain to you in this article.

The first actual bicycle, that resembles the one we see today only a little bit, was built in 1860 by Ernest Michaux. The first couple of bikes were made of wood and then the material was changed to metal, but the evolution of the bicycle didn’t stop. The front wheel was made bigger and bigger to allow the vehicle to go faster. Because the wheel was getting bigger, the saddle had to be higher, so people needed a stool to get on the saddle. In those days, it was inappropriate for women to wear pants, so the bicycle was unavailable for them. This version of the bike is also more dangerous. In 1890, a safer version of the bicycle was invented, named the ‘safety bicycle’. This vehicle has wheels in the same size. This ‘safety bicycle’ is also the first bicycle that women could use with their long skirts. Some people say that it also helped with the emancipation of women.

The Netherlands is the country in the world that uses the bike the most as daily transportation. But how did this happen? A man named Gertjan Hulster thinks that we cycle so much in our country is because of a coincidence. In the 1950s, the bicycle replaced the automobile in a lot of countries. The automobile caused a lot more accidents than the bicycle, more than 3000 deaths in 1971 only in the Netherlands. The Dutch people weren’t that happy about that, and then the child of a well-know journalist named Vic Langenhoff, died in a car accident. Following an article written by Langenhoff, people started protesting to bring back the bike. The government was in the middle of changing the cities and decided to make separate lanes just for bikes. They made 35,000 km of biking lanes in just one country. That makes cycling sometimes faster than taking the car because there is no traffic jam. The oil prices were also very high at that time so more people decided to ride their bike to work instead of taking the car. Another reason is that the Netherlands is a very flat country and everything is really close. All of these reasons together makes cycling really appealing in the Netherlands.

In short, cycling has become the best way to transport yourself around the Netherlands because of four important reasons; The article written by Vic Langenhoff, the reorientation of the cities, the high oil prices, the flat and small country. I think that the Netherlands shouldn’t be the only country with so many bicycles. Other countries should introduce cycling in the cities in sake of the environment. More cycling people means less co2 emissions.

Adel bin Ahmed Al-jubeir

Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and member of the Council of Ministers in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

He was born in February 1st 1962 at Almajmaah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .

He attended schools in Saudi Arabia, Germany, Yemen, Lebanon and the U.S Bachelor degree in political science and economics from the University of North Texas in 1982, and an Master degree in international relations from Georgetown University in 1984. In 2006, he received an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from the University of North Texas.

His Political career

In 1987, he was appointed into the Saudi Diplomatic Service and posted to the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington, DC, where he served as Special Assistant to the Ambassador Prince Bandar bin Sultan.

His Diplomatic career

On 29 January 2007 Al-Jubeir was appointed as Saudi Ambassador to the United States of America with the rank of Minister. As ambassador, Al-Jubeir focused on strengthening the bilateral relationship by building ties across government departments in both countries. Another key area of focus was the welfare of Saudi citizens living in the United States. Other issues of focus included counter-terrorism, regional peace and security, bilateral trade, cultural exchange and interfaith dialogue. Prior to becoming ambassador, he was instrumental in establishing and maintaining the U.S.-Saudi Strategic Dialogue, which was initiated by King Abdullah and President Bush as a means to institutionalize relations between the two nations and deepen coordination on strategic, political and economic issues.

As Ambassador Al-Jubeir frequently to the Kingdom for consultations with the King and other senior Saudi officials. He was regularly seen with King Abdullah in meetings with world leaders and accompanied King Abdullah on many state visits including Oman, China, India, Pakistan,Malaysia in 2006, Germany, Italy, Turkey, and Egypt in 2007, the G20 London Summit and Doha Arab Summit in 2009 and G20 Toronto Summit in 2010.

Honors

  • 2002 – Person of the Week by the Time.
  • 2006 – Alumnus Award from the University of North Texas.
  • 2006 – Honorary Doctor Degree in Humane Letters from the University of North Texas.
  • 2007 – Commendatore a Sue Eccellenza from Giorgio Napolitano, the then-President of Italy.
  • 2009 – Ambassador of the Year award from the US-Arab Chamber of Commerce for his contributions to Saudi-American relations.
  • 2011 – Diplomatic Achievement Award from the National Council on U.S.-Arab Relations.
By: Haitham M Althenyan
Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia

Disney&Sony Conflict, Goodbye Spider Man

Renata, Kazakhstan

80 years ago, a long great tale began. 1939, Martin Goodman’s office, first Marvel Comics was published as a first issue of Timely Comics. They sold more than 80,000 copies about a currently unknown character right now, Human Thorch, to one of the most popular comics about a delightful hero, Iron Man.

What Stan Lee did for superheroes cannot be understated. Lee was the most influential person in Marvel’s history, and for good reason. He changed the way we see and relate to superheroes by making them more appealing to adult audiences; before, superhero comics were largely for children.

In 1977, a “friendly neighbour” Spider Man was presented to the public. He was one of the loveliest superheroes of Stan Lee. Spider man was invented in co-operation with Columbia Pictures and distributed by Sony Pictures releasing. And now we can see the effects of the old deal.

Have you ever seen any films about Spider Man? “Spider Man Far From Home” is the highest grossing film of the year. It’s box office earnings are: $1.111 billion ! As many newspapers say, the director who was crucial to the successes of Homecoming and Far From Home, has only signed with Sony for two films, which are now done.

And now Sony refused to work with Marvel more because they don’t want to share money from such popular films. As usual in our world, our idols are just someone’s business. Our dreams are easy money.

Tom Holland, who played Spider Man for the last 5 years, gave an interview and answered what he thinks about this situation: “We’ve made five great movies,” he said. “It’s been five amazing years. I’ve had the time of my life. Who knows what the future holds? But all I know is that I’m going to continue playing Spider-Man and having the time of my life. It’s going to be so fun, however we choose to do it. The future for Spider-Man will be different, but it will be equally as awesome and amazing, and we’ll find new ways to make it even cooler.”

Fans opinion

Everyone knows that all this money wouldn’t belong to these companies, if Spider Man had no fans; sounds crazy, right? No fans, pfff. But the truth is, that Spider Man has one of the biggest fan bases in Marvel&Sony Universals. When people woke up and read information about the conflict, to be sure, they weren’t happy at all. Lots of them are making posts on twitter with #SaveSpiderManFromSony, but most of them do not understand the main problem. Disney demanded for 25% of income from the films, but before they got only 5%. I understand why Sony refused to work with Disney, but as fan, I can’t accept the fact that we will never see our lovely hero in cinema again. After we lost Iron Man, Black Widow, Gamora, Captain America…we don’t want to loose anyone else. These guys were a part of our childhood, of our habitual life.

Conclusion

Personally, I don’t think we lost him forever. Many people love Spider Man. Sony loves money; thinking logically we can guess that it’snot the end of a story. There are too much connections between Spider Man and Avengers. They cant’t just throw it all away. Maybe they will change an actor, maybe only producer, anyway do not give up! Our friendly neighbour will come again, as he has done two times before.

THE RIGHTS` FIGHTER – NELSON MANDELA

Michele, Italy

Nelson Mandela was born the 18th of July, in the 1918. He borned in a small village called Mvezo in South Africa. He studied Law at the University of the Witwatersrand in the 1943 and he was only black African student.

In the 1806 the British colonials starded a politicy of segregation towards the African peolple, to use them as slaves. In the 1910 the white people deserve all the political control.

The power exercised from white people to black people

It is imaginable, how the University experience was hard and full of racism acts towards him. Anyway in the 1950 he became the president of African National Congress Youth League (A.N.C.Y.L.). So he started to approach to the political things about his home country, and also about his people so he became an activist.

He takes part in protest, trying to return the rights to the African people, becoming an icon for the black people. This annoyed the powerful and also the U.S. govern, that`s why the C.I.A. helped the South Africa State to found him and to arrest him.

In 1962 he was arrested and charged with inciting workers` strikes and leaving the country without permission. He passed 27 years into 3 different jailhouse, without never giving up.

Madiba in prison

At the same time that he passed in prison, at home he had a big family waiting for him. He had 6 kids and 3 wifes.

Mandela`s family

In the 1990 he leaved the prison and giving all his self to the policy and to all his people, at the election of the 1994 he became the South African President. He was the first black president after a long time. He gave back the rights to the black people and he defeated the apartheid.

What I really admire about him is that he has managed to change a country without the use of violence.

Mandela while taking the oath

Belgian Chocolate vs. Swiss Chocolate

Raquel Esperanza Knecht

Victoria Brion

Yolanda Frazao Sophie Gach

History of chocolate

Bildergebnis für cocoa bean
cocoa beans

As everyone may not know, chocolate has an exotic origin. Indeed, the first people to consume chocolate were the Hispanic civilizations such as the Mayas or the Aztecs. It’s logical because the tree that produces the cacao beans grows in tropical area. Central America is a place where those plants can find all they need to grow well. Some archaeologist proved that cacao beans were already consumed by humans from 1100 to 1400 B.C. Those beans were used in the fabrication of a beverage that was not yet chocolate. They used to make the beans ferment and collect the liquid. Some time later, chocolate was created.

Bildergebnis für mayas chocolate
Mayas chocolate production

At first, precolonial civilizations used to produce it as a sweet drink. At that end of the that period, it was a luxurious drink in the whole Mesoamerican area. People were even using it as currency instead of money because it was considered really precious.   The Mayas were not using money at all, but cacao beans and xocoalt (the name of their preparation). The preparation of the chocolate drink was changing from one location to another. When Aztecs were more into spicing the beverage, Mayas would add vanilla or sugar to sweeten it. The primitive form of chocolate was also used as gift to the chiefs of the tributes, to the gods and goddesses. Aztects were associating chocolate with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of the fertility. It was a really valuable element of their culture.

Then Christopher Columbus discovered America and so chocolate also. Most of the Europeans didn’t like it at first because they found it too bitter, but later, it became a truly popular product in the Spanish court. Some sweet producers tried to find a way to make it more tasty. In all over Europe, chocolate became a really well-liked candy, but it’s in Switzerland that a great candy maker found the perfect balance and created the chocolate as we all know it now.

History of the brands

Lindt & Sprüngli
Bildergebnis für lindt brand

The story begins in 1845. The confectioner, David Sprüngli-Schwarz and his inventive son, Rudolf Sprüngli-Ammann, own a small confectionery shop in the Marktgasse of Zurich’s Old Town.
They decide to be the first ones in the German speaking part of Switzerland to manufacture chocolate in a solid form. Even at that time, as many as ten workers were employed.
In 1859, Sprüngli and Son opened a second and larger confectionery and refreshment room on Zurich’s Paradeplatz.

When Rudolf Sprüngli-Ammann retired from commerce in 1892, he had acquired a widespread reputation for the quality of his products and as an expert in his field. He divided the business between his two sons: The younger, David Robert, received the two confectionery stores. The elder brother, Johann Rudolf Sprüngli-Schifferli, received the chocolate factory from his father.To raise the necessary finances, he converted his private company into ”Chocolat Sprüngli AG” and at the same time he was offered the option of acquiring the small, but famous, chocolate factory of Rodolphe Lindt in Bern. So how was Lindt born?

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Rodolphe Lindt

It was in 1879. Rodolphe Lindt, the son of a Bernese pharmacist, wanted to make chocolate. “Do you know what chocolate was like at the time? It was hard: hard to process and hard to eat.” So he bought an old factory hall with antiquated machines. Unfortunately, nothing was working. He wanted to give up when.. came that Friday evening he was about to leave the factory without having finished his work – and more importantly, without having switched off the machines. Did he forget to do because he was in such a hurry? Or was it intentional? Did he have a hunch or was it a small act of defiance? We don’t know. But the machine continued to run: for a whole weekend. When Rodolphe Lindt entered his factory on the following Monday morning, he was initially shocked. But what he found in the stirring tank was anything but hard, burnt chocolate mass. It shone; it smelt wonderful, and when he tasted some of it, he was the first person ever to experience how chocolate melts in the mouth. He was in seventh heaven.  

Côte d’Or
Bildergebnis für cote dor chocolate brand

At the beginning of twentieth-century, Belgians, with the colonial expansion, were interested in the discovery of new flavours and particularly the chocolate. Côte d’Or was created in 1983 by Charles Newhouse. The name comes from, “La Côte d’Or”, which is now the country of Ghana, where the cacao beans were picked.

The elephant with an upturned trunk in the logo was designed in 1906 and has become one of world’s most loved and recognized chocolate brands.

In 1987, Jacobs Suchard purchased Cote d’Or. Kraft Foods purchased Jacobs Suchard in 1990. In 1911, Côte d’Or launched the first Côte d’Or chocolate bar. In 1930, Côte d’Or grew its business abroad thanks to the universal exhibition. From 1940 to 1946, the brand Congobar replaces Côte d’Or especially because of the second world war. In 2005, new flavors were created, more exotics thanks to the new commitment of the brand, the fair-trade, and that’s the brand we all know nowadays.

Production facility

Let’s start with some facts about chocolate production.
Did you know that
the largest factory is the Hershey Chocolate Factory in the USA? 
not Lindt, but Teuscher is the largest Factory in Switzerland and the second largest of the world?    
the third largest factory in the world is Godiva Chocolatier in Belgium?

Lindt & Sprüngli – Kirchberg, Switzerland

Lindt gets its cocoa beans from Central America and east Africa. They are harvested by hand and carefully selected. The workers check if all of the cocoa beans can be used for Lindts production and after they ship the cocoa to the different factories all around the world. In these factories, they process cocoa in the varied kinds of chocolate Lindt has.

Image result for kirchberg lindt
Lindt, Kirchberg

Factories: – Kilchberg, Switzerland – Induno Olona, Italy – San Francisco, USA – New Hampshire, USA – Aachen, Germany

The biggest production facility is the one in Aachen, which means that most of the Lindt Chocolate is produced in Germany and not in Switzerland.

Côte d’Or – Halle, Belgium

Côte d’Or has its cocoa beans mostly from Ghana. That is why the brand is called Côte d’Or (Gold coast) referring to the old name of contemporary Ghana. In 2001, Côte d’Or had been continued questioned about their ethical stance because the media discovered that in their cocoa farms children worked. After the bad publicity, they joined the Rainforest Alliance Certified. It is an organization from Kraft Foods that makes sure that there is no child labour or bad working conditions. Côte d’Or was one of the first to join this organization. In contrast to Lindt, they sort the beans out in the different production facilities all around the world.

Image result for Côte d'Or HALLE
Côte d’Or, Halle

Factories: – France – Netherlands – Great Britain – USA

Economics

Chocolate is one of most underestimated businesses in the world. The worldwide consumption of chocolate each year is 7.2 million tons and 50% occurs on the European continent. So, as you can see, the chocolate business is booming. The annual estimate sales of chocolate around the world contribute 83 billion dollars to the global economy.

Bildergebnis für lindt hase

What do you think is the top chocolate consumption holiday in America? To be honest, I thought is must be Valentine’s Day or Easter, but it is actually Halloween. During Halloween, people buy and consume over 90 million pounds. In the second and third places are Easter with 71 million tons and Valentine’s Day with 48 million tons. So if you add everything together, in total, people in America consume over 210 million pounds just during three holidays.

Bildergebnis für lindt valentinstag

On an average Valentine’s Day nearly $400 million of is purchased on chocolate around the world. In numbers, this is 5% of the industry sales.

Except the Asian countries, chocolate is sold the most in every other

Bildergebnis für cote dor chocolate brand

country in the world. For example, the top four chocolate consumption countries in the world are Switzerland with 8,8kg per person (19,4lb), Austria with 8.1 kg (17,9lb), Germany with 7.9 kg (17,4lb) and Belgium with 5.6 kg (12,3lb) per person. Can you imagine that they eat so much chocolate alone? Let me give you an example that you can imagine this number better. That means one average person from Switzerland eats 88 Lindt chocolate bars a year.

As you already know, Switzerland produces most of their chocolate in Germany. That is the reason why Germany is the biggest exporter of chocolate products on the world with $3.8 billion a year. In the second place is Belgium with $2.6 billion and France with $1.6 billion. On the other side, the top three importers of chocolate are the USA with $2.5 billion, Germany with $2.4 billion and France with $2.4 billion as well.

So which chocolate is really the best? Belgian or Swiss chocolate?

One Belt, One Road: China’s Plan to Dominate Global Trade

By Carl Blomberg, Sweden

Global trade and cooperation across borders has been shown to be crucial for nations all over the world. Ever since the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, where 44 allied nations agreed on a new global monetary system, trade interdependence has benefited countries on all continents, causing expanding economies and improving standards of living. One of global trade’s most prominent players though, China, has for a long time remained low profile in international matters. The nation has implemented former leader Deng Xiaoping’s words ‘’hide your strengths, bide your time’’. Until now. With one of the largest and most comprehensive infrastructure projects ever, called the Belt and Road Initiative, China’s position in global matters is expected to move towards the very center. What is the Belt and Road Initiative, and more importantly; how will it impact the world and international relations?

In order to answer the above-mentioned questions, we will have to take a giant leap back in time, all the way to 130 B.C. and the introduction of the Silk Road – an ancient network for trade and commerce. The Silk Road stretched four thousand miles, from east and central Asia all the way to Europe, through India and the Middle East. The various routes that together formed the Silk Road promoted trade and had a large impact on participating nations. It brought great benefits in communication and movement of goods, services and ideas, and, as a whole, the network increased cooperation and commerce between nations significantly. From China, the Europeans received goods such as silk, spices and medicine. In return, the Chinese could trade for grapevines, horses and animal fur. Consequently, the Silk Road was an early example of globalization.

When Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Chinese communist party, first initiated the ambitious Belt and Road Initiative at the Association of Southeast Nations summit in 2013, it was with the idea of rebuilding the ancient trade network in a new modern take. According to the World Bank, the Belt and Road project, also referred to as the One Belt One Road Project or just BRI, ‘’is an ambitious effort to improve regional cooperation and connectivity on a trans-international scale’’. Furthermore, the World Bank explains that the large investment effort will involve multiple different trade routes, both on sea and land. Altogether, they aim to strengthen infrastructure, trade and investment links between China and approximately 70 other nations committed to BRI so far.

The population of the countries involved amount to 4.4 billion people. This, in turn, are equivalent to more than 60 percent and almost two thirds of the entire world’s population. Committed countries, coming from Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, together constitute one third of the global economy. According to ChinaPower’s article ‘’How Will the Belt and Road Initiative advance China’s Interests?’’, the estimated cost of infrastructure needs in the developing parts of the Asia-Pacific exceeds 25 trillion dollars through year 2030. Already in 2017 China had pledged 1 trillion dollars to the project.

Given the size of this broad and highly prestigious investment, it is not difficult to understand that opinions of both the positive and negative kind have occurred following its beginning. Proponents of the BRI argue that not only China will benefit from the deal, but also many of the less developed participating nations. During the past four decades China’s growing economy has enabled more than 800 million people to improve their standards of living, going from extreme poverty to a more stable economic situation. With the BRI China’s economy is expected to grow further. Also, BRI allows China to move up in the global value chain and gives the nation geostrategic advantages. On a bigger scale, BRI possesses the potential to help poor countries improve their infrastructure and enhance connectivity to the rest of the world. Thereby, they get a chance to increase commerce and enrich their relations to other nations.

Despite the mentioned benefits, there has been, and still is, strong resistance towards the project. United States, together with Germany and other European nations, are a few influential actors that have raised concern and opposition towards the BRI. But why? Well, one reason is that mentioned nations view the project as Chinese expansionism. The main controversy following the BRI has been that less developed countries, that are in deep need of infrastructure improvements, agree to large loans issued by China. That way they are are put in debt, which they, in turn, might be incapable of paying back. When borrowing nations are not able to return the loan, China gain access and ownership in the actual investments, for instance ports or railroads. Among others, this has been the case in Malaysia, Montenegro and Laos. According to Business Insider, Malaysian president Mahathir Mohamed even cancelled further Chinese-funded BRI projects in the country in order to prevent Malaysia from ending up in unsustainable debt.

The Belt and Road Initiative is a very versatile and complex project, and thus only time can tell whether it will be a global success or a vast failure. At present it is easy to argue for both cases. To date, questions remain for instance on how the US and the EU will treat the matter; European nations such as Italy, Greece, Luxembourg, Russia and Switzerland have all joined in to cooperate in BRI, but will there be more to come? Does Washington, with president Trump leading the way, have to oppose themselves to this project, or could the US actually take part in the BRI and gain economical benefits? And how will the BRI affect China, and other committed nations? These are just a few of all the questions following the development and progress of the Belt and Road Initiative. In all uncertainty, though, two things are for sure: One, that the BRI will change the economic environment and geopolitical relations in the world. Two, that China are done hiding their strength, and biding their time.