History of the Crusaders

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Kevin Bolt,Switzerland

In the year 1095 after Christ, Pope Urban II called in the Council of Clermont at the beginning of the Crusades.

 

In the spring of 1096, the Crusaders broke up into four armies under the leadership of French princes.

 

The religion of Islam, founded by the Arab Mohammed in Mecca 630, became a threat to Byzantium. As the holy places of Christianity in Jerusalem were also in the hands of the Arabs, the Pope called for the First Crusade.

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In the year 1099, the Crusaders succeed in conquering Jerusalem. 

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 The siege lasted five weeks. During this time, the Crusaders set up an appalling massacre among the Islamic and Jewish populations.

 

The goal of the crusade had been reached and more than one million people had lost their lives in this war.

 

: 1096-1099 First Crusade

: (15.7.1099 Storming of Jerusalem

: 1147-1149 Second Crusade

: 1189-1192 Third Crusade

: 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade 

: 1218-1229 Fifth crusade

: 1248-1254 Sixth crusade

: 1270 Seventh Crusade

 

The Seventh Crusade was also called the Children’s Crusade. Crusade undertaken by French and German children, in which they moved, from religious zeal, to the thousands to Genoa and Marseille, and perished miserably or were sold as slaves on the way.

 

The consequences of the Crusades:

The formation of Knights ‘ order

(Templar order, Order of St. John and Teutonic Order.

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Ranking of the order of the Knights Templar:

Since there was a well-organized hierarchy among the Templars, it was possible for them to set up a powerful army.

There were a large number of well-trained knights in the main quarters who guarded the fortresses on the one hand and were on call for the fight on the other.
In addition to these knights, there were sergeants and squires who belonged to the Templars.

 

Grandmaster–he acted like a sovereign
• Seneschal-he was the second highest dignitary • Marshal-was responsible for the training of the Knights

• Komtur – responsible for the provinces and treasurers

• Schneider – provided the Knights with the necessary garments depending on the seasons

• Fighting Brothers Knights – were members of the aristocracy – their possessions: 3 horses, a squire and a tent

• Serving Brothers Sergeants – came from a non-aristocratic family and possessed 1 horse

• Under Marshal-subjected to the marshal-was treated similarly to a knight

• Banner Carrier – was sergeant and responsible for all squires

• Squire – Stood up to the knight in battle and took care of the equipment and the horse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hedi Slimane’s “Californication”

Matilde Serri Pini, Italy

Innovation is the best way to describe the style of Hedi Slimane. In every fashion house he has worked in, he always leaves an indelible mark.

Already in the year 2000, in the house of Dior he created the Dior Homme line upsetting the whole fashion system, fusing male and female lines, tight sleeves and an occasional cravat which became the new concept of fashion. Thus, he abandons the idea of ​​”classic” typically approached by the name of Dior.

In 2007 the revelation.

The designer abandoned Dior , and decided to move to Los Angeles to devote himself to music and photography. His passions are always crisp: thus creating a sort of personal diary and archive with his best shots. It is affiliated with the local scenario, to  rock’n’roll and indie subcultures and to its emerging artists; this setting continues to revolutionize the artist’s thought.

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He returned to Saint Laurent in 2012, instilling a rock vision in the brand, thus redesigning a more youthful and accessible picture compared to something strictly traditional. A return to the full ’70s, the same Slimane claims to have drawn inspiration from his youth heroes as Mick Jagger, David Bowie and Mick Jones.

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But the true “californication” of the designer was completed with the transfer of the French house of Saint Laurent to SoCal, near Los Angeles. He compared LA to the London of the 70s: “an overlap of cultures and genres”.

The gesture of the designer provoked a division of opinion from those who grasp the geniality of the action ,to those who criticize without understanding the real motivations that have pushed the artist to do so.

In conclusion, as The Red Hot Chili Peppers sing about californication in a negative sense Psychic spies from China try to steal your mind’s elation
And little girls from Sweden dream of silver screen quotation
And if you want these kind of dreams it’s Californication.

In contrast, Hedi had his own version of californication, with the only difference that he knew how to capture all the positive and artistic aspects of the place, creating the califonication style , in particular LA style , a capital of fashion.

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Women’s Soccer

Amelie Plenk, Switzerland

 

FIFA World Cup

The FIFA Women’s World Cup has been in existence since 1991 and takes place every four years. In 2019, the next Women’s World Cup will take place in France. Then the World Cup will be held for the eighth time and 24 teams will compete against each other.

Image result for The FIFA Women's World Cup

Marta Vieira da Silva

Marta Vieira da Silva was born on the 19 February 1986. Marta has been a Swedish citizen since 14 March 2017, but she will also retain her Brazilian citizenship. Marta Vieira da Silva, commonly known as Marta, is a Brazilian 

Image result for marta vieira da silvafootballer who plays for the Orlando Pride in the National Women’s Soccer League and the Brazil National Team as a forward. With 15 goals, she holds the record for the most goals in FIFA Women’s World Cup tournaments.

 

My experience

I have been playing soccer for four years on a women’s team in a small village. Four years ago, we were still the only girls team in our club and now there are 4 teams – women’s football is becoming more popular! But, of the 265 million football players worldwide, only 10 percent are women. 

 

 

A World Without Blogging and Influencers

Stéphanie Portmann, Switzerland

Blogging about food, vacation or daily life is nowadays totally normal. Not just celebrities post their breakfast each day, also unknown teenagers and students upload all kinds of useless information on Instagram or YouTube and try to influence people.

Firstly, blogging in general means to update followers with each movement a blogger makes. Eat an acai bowl for breakfast, run to the gym for a workout in the afternoon and visit a gala in the evening is a normal day, but the most important job is reporting everything for the fans online. The more followers they can get, the more goodies they receive. Furthermore, visiting foreign countries without spending money or wearing gratuitous designer clothes is not possible without sponsors.

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People are influenced to buy the same clothes or food as the celebrity. The reason influencers do that is very simple, to get money. When they promote, for example, a watch from Daniel Wallington, the company of the watch pays the influencer for the promotion. Another way would be doing advertising with the face of an influencer. However, it is more effective to advertise on social media these days.

Secondly, blogging is different in various countries or regions. In America, Chiara Ferragni runs the throne with 13 million Instagram followers. She recently became a mommy and almost every day posts a picture of her son on Instagram. He even has his own hashtag #LeoncinoMio. In Germany, the twins Lisa and Lena or BibisBeautyPalace are influencing a lot of fans. The became famous through musical.ly or YouTube. All influencers post the same things like food, beauty, fashion or health. Almost all bloggers are influencers, but not all influencers are bloggers.

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Thirdly, since we have social media people have changed. The girls would like to look like Kylie Jenner or Ariana Grande, the boys, on the other hand, like Christiano Ronaldo. The ideal of beauty today is using as much makeup as you can, wearing the most expensive clothes as possible and living just with protein shakes, fitness, and vegan food. Young teenagers focus more on their appearances and how to become prettier or getting more likes than others on Instagram. Instead of focussing on that they definitely should like how they really are without the opinion of someone else.

From my point of view, I do not like that world. It is all about looking fabulous and being skinny, but still having a huge butt and money. The opinions of fans and potential followers are more important than their own. This unreal world would be better without wanna-be-youtube-stars or influencers-doppelganger who want to become like their idols. This illusion should be turned into reality to help third states or doing good deeds for the community.

Credits to:

https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CHBF_enUS704US704&tbm=isch&q=influencer+on+vacation&chips=q:influencer+on+vacation,online_chips:instagram&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZy7iq17DbAhVJr1QKHaBrDVgQ4lYIKCgC&biw=1920&bih=974&dpr=1#imgrc=0bHypcsIY2-KcM:

https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CHBF_enUS704US704&biw=1920&bih=925&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=e04QW_P0BpG90wKkvbv4BQ&q=chiara+fergagni&oq=chiara+fergagni&gs_l=img.3…2644.3434.0.4138.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0….0…1c.1.64.img..0.0.0….0.n2BSc8DvbEM#imgrc=cNVaV_1Of6OpbM:

https://fashionista.com/2016/09/influencer-versus-blogger

Interview of Maxime DELAERE

by Bettina Clauss, France

maxime delaere

What’s your favorite hobbies ?

His favorite hobbies are writing and swimmimg .

What’s your favorite meal ?

Raclette

Do you have pets ?

One cat

Where do you like to travel ?

Fiji Island because the landscape are beautiful and it’s hot.

What type of music do you like listen to  ?

French Rap

 

 

Bettina Clauss , France

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Do you have a pet ?
Yes my thoroughbred horse , two cats , and one fish

What is your favorite meal ?
Sushi

What your favorite hobbies ?
horse jumping

What type of music do you listen ?
Techno , house

Why did you choose Santa Barbara ?
because of the sun and it’s s small city.

By Antoine Marotte from Belgium

Real Madrid C.F – Champions League Final 2017

real madrid final pictureby Katharina Coenen, Germany

Real Madrid C.F is the most famous football club in Spain. Founded on March 6th 1906. The traditionally worn kit colors were white. In June 2017 they reached the final in the UEFA Champions League. They had to play against Juventus Football Club. The Tournament was in Wales, Cardiff, also the hometown of one of the most expensive superstars of Real Madrid, Gareth Bale. The game was special and important for the club, but especially for him. Born and raised in Cardiff, and now he had the chance to win a trophy in his hometown. Also the club had the chance to win it for the second time in a row. What else could be better ? But would he at least get the chance to play against Juventus? The Stadium was sold out, many fans decorated it with big banners. The atmosphere was gigantic and the feeling absolutely stunning. Then the official champions league hymn was heard. The players came through the tunnels and shook hands with each other, but no a sign of Gareth Bale yet.

So the match begun without him. It was really intensive and strategic. Nobody wanted to take a risk. Then after twenty minutes, a goal! Cristiano Ronaldo scored. Buffon the goalkeeper from Juventus was delirious. He shouted at his teammates ,and encouraged them on. Everyone in the stadium was excited. After just seven minutes Juventus settled the result, after a nice head goal from Mandžukić. The whole stadium was on fire, but after the first halftime Juventus did not act very self- confident. They moved back and let Real Madrid play their match. After a while Casemiro, the defender from Real Madrid took a volley after a really bad back pass from a Juventus player. It wrapped unattainable in Buffons Goal. After that Goal Juventus was resigned. Two more goals were dropped. Gareth Bale came for the last 15 minutes. The whole stadium cheered to him, and he did his best.

At the end the result was 4:1. The players cried and screamed happily. They couldn’t believe it. The night seemed magical, but not for Juventus. They were devastated. They lost again a important final. They knew that if you reached a final you have to do your best. And everyone knew in the moment they didn’t . The Italian fans applauded them and the players appreciated that.  On the other side, the Spanish Fans were thrilled and happy. Their team won this trophy, the best and most important trophy you can win in football,  the second time in a row. It was unbelievable. But Juventus was a fair team. They congratulated the players on their 12th title. And so Real Madrid wrote history. Again.

real madrid pictures 2017

The King of Rock ‘n’ Roll

Anna Victoria Buhl Nielsen, Denmark.

Elvis Aaron Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, on January 8, 1935. When Elvis was born his parents, Vernon and Gladys Presley, were living in a very small house only separated by two rooms. When Gladys gave birth to Elvis, she also gave birth to his twin brother. Sadly, Jessie Presley was stillborn, and that left Elvis to grow up as an only child. In 1948 the Presley family moved to Memphis, Tennessee, and in 1953 Elvis graduated from Humes High School. 

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Elvis was influenced by the pop and country music back in the days, but also by the gospel he had grown up with in church. In 1946, Elvis’s parents bought him his first guitar, and from there on he started preforming at talent shows. The black rhythms and blues, and the all-night gospel were also two things that made a big impact on his career later on. In 1953, an 18 year old Elvis walked into Sun Studios, at that time owned by Sam Phillips. Four dollars was the price to record a two-sided record, on Side A, “My Happiness” and on side ,”That’s When Your Heartaches Begin.” Sam was not at the studio this particular day, but instead, Marion Keisker, the secretary, noticed something special about this young boy, not only his style, but also his voice and preforming skills. 

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A year went by, and in 1954 Elvis received a call from Scotty More, who was a local guitarist, and also from the bass player Bill Black. The group got together in Memphis for a rehearsal with Sam Philips, the owner of Sun Records, to give the group another shot. The band played and sang for hours without success, but when Elvis, in a break-time, started jamming away to a quicker version of the already existing “That’s All Right” song, Sam finally heard what he had been looking for. This became Elvis’s first single.

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In 1956 Elvis Presley signed his first contract with RCA records. At the new studio in Nashville, he started working on songs, such as “Heartbreak Hotel” and “I Got A Woman.” 1958 was the year where Elvis began his journey in the U.S. Army. He served nearly two years in Germany, and therefore, spending most of his time outside the States. 

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In 1967, friends and family gathered together in Las Vegas to celebrate the marriage between Elvis and Pricilla, who now could call themselves Mr. and Mrs. Presley. The couple met during Elvis’s time in Germany. The honeymoon for the new married couple was only a couple of days in Palm Springs, before returning home to Memphis again. One year after the wedding a beautiful little baby girl, named Lisa Marie Presley, was born.

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As the years went by a lot of things happened in the life of Elvis Presley. As a total, Elvis preformed 1,684 times in live shows and concerts. The first one in 1954, and all the way up to 1977. One of his biggest, and most known concerts was, and still is, ”Aloha From Hawaii.” The show was in 1973 with more than 1 billion views worldwide. ”Aloha From Hawaii” had more viewers than the first man on the moon had, and therefore, also made it one of the most expensive entertainment shows at the time, costing 2.5 million dollars. 

Elvis also made a career out of acting, and he ended up playing roles in 33 different movies.

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In 1977, Elvis began what would be his last tour… August 16, 1977, at 2 am in the morning The King of Rock ‘n’ Roll was found unconscious on his bathroom floor. They rushed him to the hospital, only to officially pronounce him dead. At the end, the once young, healthy, and beautiful young boy had become a 350 pound heavy man having problems with heart diseases, but also many other health problems. Still, there has been countless conspiracy theories about how Elvis Presley really died… and is he really gone? 

 

ED SHEERAN

Paula Mota – Uruguay

Edward Christopher “Ed” Sheeran is a really talented singer and songwriter, who also play the guitar. He was born on February 17, 1991, in Halifax, West Yorkshire, in the United Kingdom. With only 26 years old he is doing very well in his career, everybody knows him and loves his songs.

He has a characteristic romantic and melodic style, and sometimes he does some raps too. Besides singing and writing songs, he also plays the guitar. His talent led him to compose for important artists. ‘Love Yourself’, the ‘megahit’ of Justin Bieber, is an example. Like ‘Everything has Changed’, by Taylor Swift. He also did it for One Direction with ‘Little Things’ and ‘Over Again’. Also, originally, ‘Shape of You’ was written for Rihanna.

Sheeran comes from an artist family. His father John is an art curator and his mother Imogen is a jewelry designer. Also, he has an older brother, named Matthew, who has studied music at university and is now a classical composer. He had been playing music since he was a child in Framlingham, Suffolk, a small town of 3.000 inhabitants. His childhood was not perfect. His stuttering, reddish hair and the fact that it was not good for sports made him an easy target.

Sheeran started writing music in his early teens, recording a self-made album called Spinning Man when he was thirteen in 2004. In addition to making music at home -he put out an EP titled The Orange Room in 2005- he’d busk on the streets and play whatever stage he could find. At age of sixteen, Sheeran dropped out of school to start his professional music career in London.

In ‘Take it Back’, included in the deluxe edition of his album X (2014), sings: “For four years I did not have a place to stay, but that kept me focused (…). I went from sleeping in a subway station to sleeping with a movie star (…). You found me singing in the streets when it was cold. And now I’m perspiring on stage on a sold out tour.”

Sheeran made his first steps playing comedy, hip-hop and jazz clubs, and open-mic nights. Uploaded songs to the web and thousands of students began to share their music. It did not take long to get the attention of Elton John, today his musical godfather.

 

Nowadays, he is paired with Cherry Seaborn, his high school sweetheart, with whom he reunited in New York. Moreover, he has a group of friends he has known since he was 10 years old. He is doing pretty well, he is on the best moment of his career, and we can see that his personal life is going really well too. I believe that a lot of good things are coming with him. So be aware!!