FOOTBALL: FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO OUR DAYS

Federico Rossetti, Italy

 

1-FOOTBALL’S ORIGINS: CHINA OR ENGLAND?

In 2600 b.C in ancient China we have a first form of football, it called “tsu-chu”. This term means leather ball, that derive from animal skin. This game was part of military training, this needed physical efficiency of soldier. Football as we know it today was born in England in 1863 with birth of Football Association, with this one born modern football.

 

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2-FIFA’S BIRTH

In 1904, thanks to 7 nations (France, Belgium, Switzerland, Danimark, Sweden, Spain and Holland) born in Paris the most important association of Football, the FIFA. The founders idea was to make global football, with the same rules worldwide. Infact before this creation matches were only friendly, after they form most important competitions, perhaps world cup for nations and other competitions for clubs like UCL.

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3- SAME RULES WORLDWIDE

In football’s field play 11 players for every teams, so 22 in total. The field is rectangular, the width can change from 45 to 90 meters and the length can change too: from 90 to 120 meters. While players challenge in field there is also a Referee that its task is to judge their behavior with yellow and red cards. Yellow card is for light contrasts and the red is for most dangerous contrasts. If one player takes 2 yellow cards they correspond to 1 red card, in this case player must go out the field, he is expelled. Match is divided in two half, every of this during 45 minutes for a total of 90 minutes.

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4-TODAY

Football’s world today is characterized by teams who have huge monetary resources, for example Manchester City and Paris Saint Germain. The most titled club are Real Madrid and AC Milan but the first one it’s been elected like a “Team of 20 century”. National who have more world cups are Brasil (5), Italy (4) and Germany (4).

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Visit Lucerne

Corinne Steinmann, Switzerland

Have you maybe heard about the town in Switzerland called Lucerne? If not, it’s not a problem; because I’ll give you a short insight and then I am sure you won’t forget it.

Lucerne is one of the 26 cantons in Switzerland, and the city with the same name Lucerne is the principal town of this canton. Lucerne is situated almost in the middle of Switzerland and about 83,700 habitants live there.

 

The most famous thing to visit in Lucerne is the bridge called “Kappelbruecke” with the “watertower” in the middle which connects the old town with the new town. The river between them is named Reuss.

Another historical monument is the Lion-memorial. It is a rock relief designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen. It commemorates the Swiss Guards who were massacred in 1792 during the French Revolution when revolutionaries stormed the Tuileries Palace in Paris.

Furthermore, if you like classical music, you should go to the KKL (culture and congress center) which is a multi-functional building with a concert hall that is esteemed for its high-profile acoustics. At the biggest concert hall there is space for about 1900 people. The main characteristic of the KKL-building is the boldly projecting cantilevered roof that seems to float over the construction.

Maybe you feel like going on a hike? The Pilatus is a massive mountain overlooking Lucerne in central Switzerland. The top can be reached with the  Pilatus Railway, the world’s steepest cogwheel railway, or with the aerial panorama gondolas and aerial  cableways. The Pilatus is composed of several peaks, of which the highest measures 2,128 m (6,982ft.). There are also a few restaurants to drink and eat something while enjoying the breathtaking view.

One big event in Lucerne that takes place every year in February is named Carnival. This event happens before the fasting period begins. For six days people go crazy, they dress up harebrained clothes and most of them drink a lot of beer or other alcoholic drinks. There are different musical bands which play songs on their instruments. The most fun thing to do is that you choose a dress or maybe you stitch it on your own with your friends. Every year you try to find a new, original idea. Sometimes it is connected to a current topic in the news.

A Beginner’s Guide: 6 Different Tattoo Styles Explained

By Katarina Todorovic, Switzerland

Do you want to get a tattoo? Maybe here in Santa Barbara? But you don’t really know what you want? Let the following six tattoo styles inspire you!

  1. Traditional:

The so called American Traditional or Old School style is the oldest style in the modern world of tattoos, as we know it nowadays. It is known for its solid black outlines, a limited color palette and less detail. Usual traditional imagery includes roses, hearts, nautical, eagles, skulls, butterflies and women’s heads. For this kind of tattoo you can go to any tattoo artist because it obviously isn’t a style which is hard to tattoo on the skin.

  1. Realism:

That is a tattoo that looks exactly like it would in the real world. A fine art skill, realistic tattoos done well look like photos or portraits on the skin. Here it is important to have a good photo reference and pick a skilled, well-known artist. Nowadays every artist has a Facebook or Instagram account where you can have a look on his work. Pay as much as you can for a tattoo of this kind because you definitely get what you pay for! Cheap realism or portrait tattoos look terrible. See the difference below:

  1. Watercolor:

This style is currently very popular. Watercolor tattoos mimic an experimental artistic process by using splashes and streaks of color to give the impression of paint being used on canvas or paper. The watercolor effect can be all-encompassing to the design, with no line-work or other styles, but it can also be combined with realism or solid outlines, to form just the background or foreground of a tattoo. Often bright colors are used and themes of nature. Like before: be careful while picking an artist.

  

  1. Tribal

This is the oldest tattoo style from ancient times. Nearly always black, often using symmetry and geometrical design. Sometimes un-detailed with block black lines, or utilizing delicate detail and precision. A good artist will carefully design a piece to compliment the shape of the body, like this one.

 

  1. Dotwork

Dotwork tattoos are one of the most intricate styles.  Complicated geometric images are created with nothing but dots. The tattoo artist must be very patient and very talented because he has to place every dot in the right place. Many dotwork artists have also abandoned the tattoo machine and are performing hand poked tattoos. Dotwork tattoos are a style on their own, and the shading you get through dots is almost 3D. You can’t get that kind of shading with any other method. The dotwork technique is used especially for geometric tattoos, religious and spiritual tattoos, but mostly for mandalas.

  1. Japanese

The Japanese tattooing is one of the most sacred tattoo arts. Detailed designs often cover large areas of the body such as the back or the arm. This tattooing style follows a very strict set of artistic rules: positioning, imagery used, direction, color and more, all adhering to the ancient traditions. Imagery includes cherry blossoms, koi fish, lotus flowers, dragons, war dogs and Geishas.

Hopefully this article inspired you for your first or next tattoo if you were planning to get one, educated you a bit if you weren’t interested in tattoos before, and helped you not to have a prejudice against tattooed people if you had one because each tattoo has its own story, meaning or reason behind it.

Should the Private Affairs of a Politician be Public?

By Jesper Daniel Nils Falk, Sweden

Humans have somehow always been fascinated with other people’s private lives. Mankind’s curious nature has a monumental part to play in this, but, when it comes to public figures, such as celebrities and politicians, the thirst for information is a notch higher.

There is a range of different pros and cons when it comes to the question, should politicians specifically have their personal lives exposed? The fact that they are being paid by your tax money means that their lives are more scrutinized. You do want to know what you “invest” your money in, yours, your kids and the country’s future is in the politicians’ hands.

There is also the issue of how the politician might behave during private occasions, how they handle certain tough issues that could surface, what they spend their salary on can be used to foresee how he or she might handle future crisis and sensitive decisions. Do they break down mentally on the smallest of obstacles? Do they spend their money on wasteful and unnecessary luxuries? Do they tap into governmental funds for their own desires? These are questions that might instigate theories of conspiracy or other harmful rumors if not answered and swept under the carpet.

As with everything, there are two sides to this debate as well. If the politicians life should be as exposed as those of celebrities such as movie stars then there is the chance that the politicians might lose focus on what’s necessary. Imagine having a camera documenting every move you make when you just need some time to think before making difficult decisions. Imagine having someone investigate what you spend your earned money on, or, for example, how you cope with the loss of a family member or something just as simple as criticizing your diet.

However, in countries with freedom of speech and press, reporters and investigators need to apply some pressure on politicians to let them know that they are in fact watched being with every step they take. Since corruption levels and other devious tactics are still high around the world, it’s good to know that there are still some people that dedicate their lives to root out dishonesty and crime in the political sector.

There is always the possibility for abuse of the freedom of press. Documenting every single move politicians make might affect them negatively even though the politicians are doing their job effectively, or, on the other hand, they are living a superb personal lives but are not so competent leaders.

There are a lot of hefty arguments asserting why the public should have access to a politician’s private life, if he divorces his wife or cheats, will he destroy the trust given to him by the country and do the same to the country? A considerable amount of incidents that occurs in a politician’s private life can be reflected directly in his actions as a governmental figure.

We also have the fact that the more voters know about their candidate, the more likely will they trust him. Imagine standing in the polling booths and deciding between two candidates that you only know through the media, who spent the most money on public relations and commercials, then you might regret not pursuing facts and finding more information about each one.

Additionally, should every little mishap in the past be brought up to determine who’s appropriate or not? “He skipped class in 8th grade. That’s not the president we want!” This could be a thing you might hear from people who are trying the very hardest to find dirt on the candidate they don’t like, overlooking the fact that the candidate in question might have done years of humanitarian work and solved a world crisis.

There are in fact very few politicians with immaculate personal lives, so why do we feel the need to find and display every single misdemeanor?

After all, politician’s are mere humans, not more, nor less.